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What Conditions Does a Neurosurgeon Treat?

Jan 05, 2021
What Conditions Does a Neurosurgeon Treat?
Neurosurgeons specialize in the care and treatment of brain, spine and nervous system conditions through non-surgical and surgical methods.


Neurosurgeons specialize in the care and treatment of brain, spine and nervous system conditions through non-surgical and surgical methods. While many people assume neurosurgeons only deal with brain conditions, in reality they have extensive training and expertise in a wide range of conditions that affect the skull, brain, spine, spinal cord, nerves and blood vessels.

The following is not a complete list of all the conditions neurosurgeons diagnose and treat. But it’s a good jumping off point to learn more about the common disorders that fall under a neurosurgeon’s care.


The spine contains 26 bones (called vertebrae) stacked on top of each other and supported by intervertebral discs. Facet joints connect adjacent vertebrae. The spinal column is responsible for protecting and supporting the spinal cord and nerves, which branch out from the spine and carry messages to the rest of the body. Injury or disease to any part of the spine can cause pain, loss of mobility and nerve damage.

There are multiple injuries and disorders that can develop in the spine. Age-related degeneration, traumatic accidents (falls, car accidents, sports injuries), overuse/repetitive use movements, obesity, poor posture, infections and congenital defects can all contribute to or cause spinal disorders. 

Neurosurgeons treat a wide range of spinal disorders, including complex spinal deformities. 


The peripheral nervous system ferries messages and sensations between the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. Peripheral nerves branch off from the spinal cord and carry information to the hands, feet, arms, legs, trunk, face and internal organs. When the peripheral nervous system is damaged or injured, abnormal signaling or disruption of signaling can cause pain, weakness, numbness, tingling, altered sensations, and loss of motor skills in the affected area.

Traumatic accidents (falls, fractures, car accidents, sports accidents), overuse or repetitive use, and systemic diseases are common causes of nerve damage or nerve entrapment. 

Neurosurgeons are trained to treat peripheral nerve injuries, including:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Ulnar nerve compression
  • Peroneal nerve compression
  • Tarsal tunnel syndrome
  • Brachial plexus injuries
  • Sciatic nerve injuries


Neurovascular disorders are conditions that affect the blood supply in the brain and spinal cord. Blood flow can be disrupted by narrowed or hardened blood vessels, blockages, or a hemorrhage (bleeding from a ruptured vessel). While some neurovascular disorders develop slowly, some conditions cause sudden and severe life-threatening symptoms. 

Common symptoms of a neurovascular disorder are difficulty walking, loss of coordination and balance, dizziness, confusion, change in mental status, one-sided numbness, weakness or paralysis, difficulty speaking, vision and hearing problems, severe headaches, seizures, nausea and vomiting, and loss of consciousness.

Neurosurgeons evaluate, diagnose and treat critical neurovascular conditions, including:

  • Carotid artery stenosis 
  • Brain aneurysms
  • Strokes
  • Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)
  • Brain hematomas
  • Brain hemorrhages 


Neurosurgeons are experts in the surgical removal of tumors in the skull, brain, spine, spinal cord and neurovascular system.


Traumatic head, brain, and spine injuries can result from car accidents, falls, sports accidents, and natural disasters. Neurosurgeons have the expertise to perform complex surgical procedures to treat a range of traumatic injuries, including:

  • Concussions
  • Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs)
  • Spinal cord injuries
  • Spine fractures
  • Broken bones
  • Skull fractures
  • Brain hemorrhages
  • Brain hematomas


Neurosurgeons evaluate, diagnose, treat and manage several chronic pain conditions, including:

  • Back and neck pain
  • Headaches
  • Neuropathy
  • Facial pain


Whether you’re suffering from an acute injury or chronic pain, Integrity Spine and Orthopedics has the orthopedic care, pain management, sports medicine, and surgery services to help you to get back on your feet and back to doing the activities you love. Our board-certified and fellowship-trained surgeons specialize in performing minimally invasive spine surgeries for spinal disorders like herniated discs, pinched nerves, sciatica, spinal stenosis, arthritis, degenerative disc disease and scoliosis. 

We have a convenient clinic located in Jacksonville, FL. Please call us or reach out online to schedule your first appointment.